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In order to interpret a population from a sample, we required that the sample was representative of the full population.
However, in any sample there is natural variation amongst those sampled that leads to two repeated samples not to look like eachother.
Inferential statistics are differentiated from the descriptive statistics we have seen so far in how they address this above question.
One of the most important tools we will learn in this class is hypothesis testing, as one way to test if a claim might be infered about the wider population.
Courtesy of Mario Triola, Essentials of Statistics, 6th edition