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We have now explored the notion of a predictive model, but the notion of an explanatory model is more complicated philosophically.
Sometimes explanation means causation by physical principles,
However, sometimes explanation is just a description of the (conditional/ stastical) relationships between the variables.
Causal conclusions require stronger assumptions than those used for the predictive models that we have already discussed.
Sometimes, we only wish to understand correlations, i.e., variables that (co)-vary together or asymmetrically…